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The Art of Building Embedded Systems for IoT


Within the landscape of Internet of Things (IoT), support is provided for communication among devices and protocol through means of wireless and LAN connectivity. Based on a personal recognition system, machines are able to recognize not only individuals or things along with their movements, but also data exchange. Given this ability, success for innovation can occur within a range of industries ranging from agriculture to communication or logistics. In addition to this, daily uses of IoT include, but are not limited to, the security systems detecting movement, smart kitchen appliances via means of principles for sensing physically. 

Important aspects of the IoT can be summarized as follows: 

  • Computing to process data at anywhere any time on any device 
  • Connectivity to all networks
  • Collection to provide various services 
  • Content to transmit data at any time 
  • Communication from anywhere 
  • Convergence to transmit data on different platforms 

In order to transmit data successfully using the IoT, all of these interrelated communication items along with the backbone need to work in a seamless fashion with the top layers. Therefore, the following aspects must exist for the IoT in general: 

  • Service: This includes adding processing systems and sensors in order to provide capabilities for data-driven decision making and response management systems regarding the maintenance, monitoring and determination processes. 
  • Communication: This refers to the connectivity which provides a sensor with the transmission capability for signal processing regarding functions within internet networks or external and internal servers
  • Semantics: This refers to the searching and downloading process. 
  • Computation: This refers to a processing system with the means of distributed computing for both transmitting data to any device or user and for the sensor data. 
  • Identification: This refers to the personal recognition system. 
  • Sensing: This refers to the process of gathering data by recognizing various real-world attributes ranging from temperature to humidity.

Within the context of IoT, embedded system competency plays a crucial role. An embedded system can be defined as a system electronically composed within the central processing unit (CPU) for being made use of in electronic appliances ranging from mobile phones to digital cameras and in household appliances. Today, the use of such embedded systems are on constant rise given their additional uses in various industries such as medicine, robotics or agriculture. Given the small physical size, the integration of such systems into sensors occurs easily due to a minimal re-design requirement. While memory units in micro-controllers can be utilized for different aims to fulfill individual needs this results also in the increase of device through means of software.


Given the increased use of embedded systems, their importance within IoT ecosystems increases as well. Given the user-friendliness of graphical programming techniques, it can be put into use for novel users in the field as well. Some suggestions for developing an embedded system within an IoT ecosystem would include, but are not limited to:

Phase 1– Synthesizing readily available systems by means of IoT for the development of efficient embedded systems:

  • A review of relevant research papers to find out any synthesis regarding the development of embedded systems of interest
  • A review of literature on graphical programming suitable for using in any IoT landscape
  • A review of literature regarding the field of IoT, including the development and evaluation of embedded system efficiency. 
  • A synthesis of graphical programming methods using the IoT regarding the development of embedded systems of interest

Phase 2– Evaluating the relevancy of graphic programming systems by means of IoT for the development of efficient embedded systems:

  • Developing a feasibility evaluation tool for graphical programming to be used within the IoT ecosystem for the development of embedded systems of interest.
  • Evaluation of graphical programming methods using the IoT regarding the development of embedded systems of interest performed by ten experts 
  • Analysis of feasibility evaluation tool for graphical programming methods using the IoT regarding the development of embedded systems of interest using mean (𝑥𝑥̅) and standard deviation (SD).

The list is not exhaustive and provides a preliminary starting guide to make the best of the available technologies within the IoT ecosystem.

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Ayse Kok
Ayse completed her masters and doctorate degrees at both University of Oxford (UK) and University of Cambridge (UK). She participated in various projects in partnership with international organizations such as UN, NATO, and the EU. She also served as an adjunct faculty member at Bosphorus University in her home town Turkey. Furthermore, she is the editor of several international journals, including those for Springer, Wiley and Elsevier Science. She attended various international conferences as a speaker and published over 100 articles in both peer-reviewed journals and academic books. Having published 3 books in the field of technology & policy, Ayse is a member of the IEEE Communications Society, member of the IEEE Technical Committee on Security & Privacy, member of the IEEE IoT Community and member of the IEEE Cybersecurity Community. She also acts as a policy analyst for Global Foundation for Cyber Studies and Research. Currently, she lives with her family in Silicon Valley where she worked as a researcher for companies like Facebook and Google.


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