The society or the world at large is the quintessence of every human being. As a spirited social existence, humans have an innate tendency to aggregate by inhabiting jointly in a systematic community. A society by nature is preordained through a set of thresholds ascertained to sustain ordinance within the context spoken by the intentions and inclinations of its constituency. The criterion of such limits or declarations is
endless, often reclassified within the spectrum of physical, geographic, legal, ethical, economic, and political. Ideally, the statutes are characterized by the explicit pleas of the people. Still, in the pure realm, one can effortlessly vouch for societies where their laws are written by those who (by a group of people or a person) have little leverage within the grassroots community. Therefore, to adopt an appropriate social strategy, every individual within the society must be able to freely thrive. Unfortunately, in the modern world, contrary to what is usually dissipated, such is not the prevailing case. Oftentimes, someone, somewhere transpire various schools of thought trotting from full-blown capitalism to a radical arrangement of socialism, like communism, and hybrid varieties in between to overcome. As of today, we have been incapable of administering an immaculate system of the social tenancy as merely the reflection of an elemental yet multifaceted bundle of predicaments. The pillar of the misfit within a given society seems to pursue a continuous journey of the lack of adequate knowledge among citizens on subjects of history, politics, and existing social arrangements. It is becoming clearer to me that most socio-political downfalls are the upshot of an assortment of neighborhood diversity, size, and economic mismatch, and maladaptation. The failure to match the latter factors among the lawful inhabitants of a community, along with the scarcity of insight on the same in history has constructed a power vacuum inundating persons, groups, or even entities with alternate motives to cram the void by factions like popular groups, dictators, or a prominent figure. Latest, is the scenario that the ideal space for political activists and bureaucrats who are utterly skilled in Art of deception.
But what is precisely a social program
The term “social welfare” or social security lacks a distinct meaning.
One of the significant challenges of our era pertains to the municipal expectation of a better life and social protection. The social security, through its literal portrayal, is no more than an administration of socio-economic peace within which a person can thrive and prosper. Over the preceding century, the description of welfare has been exclusivity dedicates to public expenditure for the economic, social, interest of elderly, unemployed, and population with disabilities through subsidies and various monetary aids. The social security welfare program is merely a government policy convened to furnish consolation to its natives. By primarily specialized instruments, along with the attractiveness of the intuition of putting the burden on the entity (government), welfare has gained substantial vogue among the left-wing populous millennials. But, municipal projects despite the allure have not been without downfalls.
The history of social welfare levels to the interdisciplinary inspection evolution of liberal work, overseen movements about metropolitan reform propensities, non-profit or public assistance planned to safeguard individuals, families, and citizens’ interest in larger communities. Historically the Charitable endeavors have been the task of clerical institutions; nonetheless, over the decades, such efforts have unraveled out of religious dogmas, inspiring reformists to adapt profound compassion, formal ethical convictions, and a robust sense of integrity. Hence, the central yet preliminary stride in establishing a coordinated social welfare policy can be traced back to the authorization of the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 by the English parliament, which substantiated the government commitment for the needy local parishioners by designating a system of mandatory financing outside the clergy. Dead on, the tenets and rules of English Poor Laws were hauled by the American colonial settlers. Nevertheless, the impact of the Civil War, large scale immigration, rapid industrialization, and sweeping urbanization exacerbated poverty and inflated taxes required for impoverished solace. The trauma of the Great Depression inferred the decisive measure towards the metamorphosis of contemporary social welfare within history called the ”New Deal enactment” of the Social Security Act and the domestic programs, also known as the Great Society. The impacts of the Great Depression compelled President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Congress to legislate the New Deal policies with the mission to provide a colossal scale universal poultice. Therefore On August 15, 1935, enactment of the Social Security Act was established to guarantee old-age insurance for retired workers, benefits for sufferers of industrial calamities, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and the physically disabled.
Looking further in the Concept of the welfare program and state
The modern welfare state is the class of public administration with commonwealth protecting and stimulating economic and social sovereignty of its citizens based on the doctrines of equal opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and civic responsibility for citizens incapable of appeasing their basic needs for a decent living. The Sociologist T. H. Marshall characterized the modern welfare state as a distinctive mixture of democracy, welfare, and capitalism. Within the mixture of categories, one can categorize the current social programs in to “Nordic model,” and “the welfare state capitalism.”
The Nordic representation encompasses economic and social protocols in concordance with the ”common” cultural practices customary to the Nordic countries, including Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The policies entail limited economic colleges of free-market capitalism built on top of comprehensive welfare oversight and multi-level collective bargaining with a considerable fraction of the workforce standing unionized. The Nordic model unlocked by earning overwhelming recognition after World War II. Before then, the Scandinavian countries were, in most part, ruled by monarchies, about the period when Finland and Iceland were becoming republics in the 20th century. Nowadays, the Nordic nations are profoundly democratic, naturally with varying degrees of differences among them, dictated by”individual uniqueness offered by particular social norms.” For the most part, they all support a universal welfare state intended for explicitly enhancing personal autonomy and promoting social mobility. Instead, embodied a corporatist network implicating a tripartite pact where representatives of labor and employers manage wages and labor market policies reconciled by the sovereign government, which embraced restricted private business ownership, negotiation power, and diverse economy.
On the contrary to its Nordic peer, Welfare state capitalism is around depicting welfare state in a capitalist core economic system. Within the boundaries of free enterprise, the welfare state is designed to promote businesses procure socialist-like assistance to employees and the populace. The establishment of the welfare state in the United States goes back to the mid-twentieth century marking the stature of business prerequisites for employees, including retirement packages and health care. Until then, not all employers seemed to have bestowed sufficient benefits. This forced workers to contest to the federal administration, requesting imposition of minimum employment standards such as the minimum wage. As of Today, Welfare state capitalism is fully operational in the United States. Still, the government struggle to secure minimum labor standards through mandates and legislative feats which have utterly been failing. The homeless population is higher than ever before; healthcare services distribution across all socioeconomic boundaries is extremely uneven while the average united states GDP prevails in excess of $50,000!
Social programs in the United States are primarily in the form of welfare subsidies formulated to satisfy the needs of the American people. Federal and state welfare programs include cash assistance, healthcare, and medical provisions, food donation, housing grants, energy and utility subsidies, education and childcare assistance, and pensions for other basic services. Momentous employment provisions, either mandated by code or voluntary, also hoped to furnish comparable social welfare benefits as in socialist equivalents. The policies differ in eligibility requirements and are subsidized to various organizations and corporations today on a federal, state, local, and individual level.
The concept of Equal opportunity and its variation perception within its social context
The state of adequate access to opportunities to everyone, aimed at achieving an affluent lifestyle is critical, as one can vaguely foresee anyone refuting it’s crucially. Equal opportunity in the theoretical sense is where everyone treated the same, deemed unharmed by bizarre impediments, prejudices, or preferences. The objective is for every individual in a given society possesses the balanced prospect to exercise their talents and skills devoid of arbitrary or trivial factors, such as circumstances of birth, upbringing, having well-connected relatives or friends, religion, sex, ethnicity, race, or even involuntary personal attributes such as disability, age, gender identity, or sexual orientation. Chances for advancement should be available to every enthusiastic person, so they have equal odds to endure within the framework of expectations and the arrangement of prevailing restrictions.
Every person deserves to have access to the spectrum of possibilities that encourages them to live healthy and comfort- called opportunity; however, the circumstances are different among different people and societies. For instance, in the system of capitalism, the free-market defines the fundament of a factual opportunity. Yet, social welfare programs recognize government intervention through the redistribution of wealth and collective bargaining exertions as the original impetus of opportunity. The myriad variations of what equal opportunity represents guaranteed for citizens under mixed economy criteria. Personal attitude, as well as the interactive conformity between citizens, is the top influencer of what is perceived today as equal opportunity and individual sovereignty. Amid sentiments clarifying the definition, passive and active attitudes are of utmost significance. Under the robust socialist policy, the constituents exclusively ought to enact the passive stance expecting the authority to take care of their common interests. In distinction, capitalism anticipates the populace to be in charge of their welfare by the independent venture. Both schemes have a way to succeed under the transparent divulgence to the public, but while honoring appointed provisions such as state of ideological unanimity, size, and societal norms of the particular community. The latter notion takes us to the topic of individualism, capitalism, populism, and socialism; systems among which one can encounter substantial discords through the merits of attitude.
Socialism or syndicalism is a political and economic inference of a social institution that supports the means of production, distribution, and exchange clenched and governed by the public by the entirety — the Socialism syndicates on the power and legitimacy of a larger government. Its collective bargaining power rests on the denomination of people, such as unions vs. the universal sovereignty of every individual.
One of the universal creeds that have earned substantial popularity among millennials is the concept of populism. Latter symbolizes a political attitude that inspires the inducement of ordinary folk who believe prevailing aristocrat factions overstep their interests. Populist conception is a delicate subject, as it attends to as an exceptional weapon for political emissaries to win the vote of the average citizen. Hence typical disagreement is about the backing for populist politicians or policies. Populism is nothing but the sentiment by the morality of upholding or being sought by common lineage.
Capitalism is the economic and political format in which a country’s trades and industries are overseen by private proprietors for profit, rather than by the commonwealth. Capitalism has often been referred to as free or private enterprise and sometimes cited as individualism. But today’s capitalism has invariably stood riddled with corporate mission, thus utterly contradicting what individualism stands for! And ultimately, the vision of Individualist rests on the widespread autonomy and self-reliance. Its social theory facilitates the right of action for everyone over the united or state discretion.
Prerequisites for a successful social program
Irrespective of what socio-political ideology we believe on- to implement a healthy welfare program and regardless of our conception of effective administrative structure; first, we must realize the defining junctures of what an individual hegemony signifies to us. We must hold the full grasp of liberties and constraints Constitution inscribes – only then with reasonable pretentiousness we can endorse the right societal policies to protect and motivate the entire citizenry.
The significance of inversely proportional interrelationship between cultural Diversity, size, economy and executing a successful social program
Cultural, ethnic, ideological, and even racial diversity of any community is by far the principal critical elements for the successful implementation of a welfare system. Generally speaking, the more diverse and vast size of the constituency would eventually impose obstructing individual identity from prevailing. In turn, it sparks the explosion of the populist trend in search of discovering a commonality among them, something which is exceptionally difficult to attain without predisposition in vast societies with eclectic native atmosphere such as the United States. Historically, populism has reasonably thrived in Nordic countries, primarily because they are relatively smaller countries and have been apt to maintain cultural and social uniqueness along with a healthy populist mindset that is well-aligned with unique social philosophies. But anticipating similar outcomes within the federal United States amid extreme sociopolitical diversity by borrowing the Nordic idea would further divide the citizens.
Another factor worth pointing out is- Economic status of the community, and the prosperity of the welfare program success in the context of the diversity and size theory is detrimental to the quality and adequacy of welfare assistance. The Higher the Gross domestic product; (GDP) of a society translates into higher the chance of enforcing a successful welfare program. Likewise, the smaller the community size: the GDP ratio would ensure a better quality of care.
In summary, to assure a socialized welfare program, it would be ideal for conserving communities to the smallest possible size able to accommodate unique socio-ideological and cultural traits that holds up a low Size: GDP ratio. No argument, in the socialized venture, the bureaucracy is the principal function of any large community and just like any other system is counterproductive of the welfare program and is prone to corruption, hence ought to be avoided.
Healthcare as a social welfare program
Among all targets of compassion, agendas, healthcare is by far the most controversial claim. Some believe that healthcare delivery is the government obligation, where others feel medical service must follow the rules of the free market, and a few insist healthcare is a right. But the bulk of those who think the delivery of medical establishment must be rectified through collective exertions of the society by way of government intervention moreover reckon that funding it by redistribution of wealth is the way to go!
The healthcare delivery system, according to the populist’s vision, is included within the impulsive context of the socialistic theory by creating an immense sense of entitlement amongst the population. In the eyes of capitalist, on the other hand, healthcare is delivered by the merit of free-market competition. The latter observes welfare assistance buried within opportunity, lower costs, and deregulation.
Yet, in contrary to its traditional standing the modern capitalism has radically appointed corporations equal to a person and also have adapted collective socialist programs under the title of ”welfare state capitalism,” henceforth the designation of conservative individualism or libertarianism has inevitably emerged to differentiate itself from the pivoted edition of the new term capitalism. Individualism fundamentally dismisses corporate personification along with a collective approach to healthcare or any other sustenance. A socialism and capitalism hybrid medical service delivery policy is unsustainable unless it pursues the Nordic model while assuming invariant ethnic and sociopolitical norms, at relatively smaller community settings with potential higher GDP. Countries such as the United States would not be suited of Nordic option, because it is unduly broad and incredibly diverse.
The best healthcare system is the one that respects individual options, empowers personal liberty, and promotes free enterprises. However, if one of the Nordic models of welfare state capitalism desired, it must deliver care while maintaining the context of collectively devoted society at the smallest community prepared to adapt uniform constituents, mindset. Otherwise, it will precipitate the Clash of populist and privileged.
Under the circumstances, It’s aye to have structures social strategies as long as they are in cord with the immediate community norms while their personal choice respected, and Implemented at a limited Scale.
Welfare state capitalism at a nationwide scale is flaw prone. The Nordic model can thrive provided the uniformity of widespread citizen expectations. Respecting individual identity within every community is unavoidable. The populist rhetoric of today is around glamour, borrowing the socialist theory of equality and government trust as the ultimate power for the wellbeing of any society. Populism sees government as the anti-outlaw by condemning the aristocracy. Populism is not always liberal. In fact, to the contrary, it can be conservative, yet serve as a prerequisite to fascism. Socialism, influenced by populist doctrine, dictates the force to make communities equal by way of Marxism and autocracy. Community diversity and cultural fluidity is a relative contraindication to large scale welfare programs. It must survive the option and not an obligation. In discrepancy to widespread prosperity towards simulating the Nordic system by other countries under welfare state capitalism, all they will accomplish is lending extra discretion to the elites, be it firms or the chief executive officers (CEO) of the entities by way of loosely defined mandates and regulations.